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The Fed’s preferred measure of inflation, the Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) index, has cooled down in February. This measure is an important factor that the Federal Reserve considers when making decisions about interest rates and monetary policy. By looking at the latest PCE data, we can get a sense of how the economy is performing and whether inflation is on track to reach the Fed’s target rate of 2%.
According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the core PCE index (which strips out volatile food and energy prices) rose by just 0.1% in February. This was below expectations and marked a significant slowdown from January when it increased by 0.3%. On a year-over-year basis, the core PCE index is up by 1.6%, which is still below the Fed’s target rate.
This news comes at a time when the US economy is showing signs of recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. The labor market is improving, consumer confidence is rising, and the stock market is reaching new highs. However, inflation has been a bit of a wild card in this recovery. Some economists have predicted that the massive amount of government stimulus (in the form of direct payments, enhanced unemployment benefits, and business loans) could cause an uptick in inflation. Others have pointed out that the pandemic-induced shutdowns have disrupted global supply chains, leading to temporary price hikes in certain sectors.
Either way, the Fed has made it clear that it intends to allow inflation to run above its 2% target rate for a period of time in order to make up for past undershooting. This “average inflation targeting” policy means that the Fed is unlikely to raise interest rates until inflation has been above target for an extended period.
So, what does the February PCE data mean for this policy? On the one hand, the slowdown in inflation growth could indicate that the economy is still recovering slowly and that there is little risk of significant inflation in the near term. On the other hand, the Fed may be concerned that inflation is not rising quickly enough to reach its target and may need to do more to stimulate the economy.
One factor to consider is energy prices. The PCE index includes both food and energy prices, which can be quite volatile. In February, energy prices rose by 3.9%, which was a significant contributor to overall inflation. However, this increase was driven largely by cold weather and temporary supply chain disruptions, rather than fundamental changes in supply and demand. If energy prices level off in the coming months, the overall PCE index may remain low.
Another factor to consider is the fact that the pandemic has disrupted consumer behavior and spending habits. For example, many people have shifted their spending from services (such as travel, dining out, and entertainment) to goods (such as groceries, home goods, and electronics). This shift has caused some goods prices to rise, while some services prices have fallen. As the economy continues to recover and people return to their pre-pandemic habits, this dynamic may shift again, affecting inflation in unpredictable ways.
In summary, the February PCE data suggests that inflation growth has cooled down, but the overall trend is still up. The Fed is likely to take a wait-and-see approach to monetary policy, watching for signals of sustained inflation before making any changes. In the meantime, consumers and businesses can expect interest rates to remain low, which could stimulate borrowing and spending. However, they should also be prepared for potential inflation in the future, as the economy continues to recover and the effects of the pandemic wear off.
As always, the Fed will be monitoring economic indicators closely and making adjustments as needed. The February PCE data is just one piece of the puzzle, and future PCE reports may show different results. For now, the Fed’s preferred inflation gauge suggests that inflation is under control, but the situation remains fluid.